Hexagrama

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Merriam Websters Dictionary.jpg Este artigo encontra-se parcialmente em língua estrangeira.
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Um hexagrama

Um Hexagrama é uma figura geométrica de uma estrela de seis pontas, {6/2}, composta por dois triângulos eqüiláteros. Sua intersecção produz um hexágono regular. É sum símbolo geralmente atribuído aos sete planetas e ao Macrocosmo.

Origens e forma

O hexagrama é um símbolo mandálico chamado satkona Yantra ou sadkona Yantra encontrado nos antigos templos hindus do Sul indiano construído há milhares de anos [1] [2] [3]. Ele simboliza a Nara-Narayana, ou meditação perfeito estado de equilíbrio entre o homem e Deus, e caso se mantenha, os resultados em "moksha", ou "Nirvana" (liberação do limites do terreno mundo, e seu material pompa.

Outra teoria sobre a origem da forma é que se trata simplesmente de 2 a 3 letras no nome David: hebraico, na sua grafia, David é transliterados como 'DW-D ». Na bíblia hebraica, a letra "D" (Dalet) foi escrito em uma forma muito mais como um triângulo, semelhante à letra grega "Delta" (Δ). O símbolo pode ter sido uma simples família crista formada por justaposição e lançando os dois mais proeminentes letras no nome.

Alguns pesquisadores têm teorizado que o hexagram representa o gráfico astrológico no momento do nascimento de David ou anointment* como rei. O hexagram também é conhecido como o "Rei da Estrela" nos círculos astrológicos.


No antigo papiro, pentagramas, juntamente com estrelas e outros sinais, são freqüentemente encontrados em amuletos que ostentam o nome judaico de Deus, e utilizada para a guarda contra a peste e outras doenças. Curiosamente o hexagrama não é encontrado entre esses sinais. Na grande magia dos papiros em Paris e Londres, há vinte e dois sinais de lado a lado, e um círculo com doze signos, mas nem um desses é o pentagrama hexagrama.

Portanto, o sincretismo de helenístico, judeus, e copta(fase final da língua egipcia)com suas influências provavelmente não originaram o símbolo.

Também é possível que, como uma forma geométrica simples, como por exemplo o triângulo, círculo, quadrado ou, o hexagram foi criada por diversos povos com nenhuma conexão com um outro.

Uso pelos Judeus

The Star of David in the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text, the Leningrad Codex, dated 1008.

O Escudo de Davi é um símbolo do Judaísmo e da identidade Judia, e também é conhecido como a Estrela Judaica ou Estrela de Davi. Seu uso como sinal da identidade Judia começou na Idade Média, apesar do seu uso religioso ter começado antes, as atuais evidencias arqueológicas dizem que este escudo data do 3°, 4° século synagogue in the Galilee King Solomon-s Seal. A more enduring symbol of Judaism, the menorah, has been in use since BCE.

Uso pelos cristãos

The hexagram may be found in some Churches and stained-glass windows. Example of this is one embedded in the ceiling of the Washington National Cathedral. Because the similar-looking sign called the encircled pentagram used in occultism, it was not used in church architecture until Christian architects, both Protestant and Catholic, began to accept the notion that the Star of David is an old Jewish sign.Predefinição:Fact In Christianity it is often called the star of creation.

The Bible makes no direct mention of the Star of David, however, the Catechism of the Catholic Church of the year 528 refers to the star which led the Magi to Christ as "the Star of David". In the context, the phrase most likely meant "the star of the king of Israel" rather than the double triangle-shaped symbol used today.

Latter-day Saints (Mormons)

Star of David on the Salt Lake Assembly Hall

The Star of David is also used less prominently by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, chiefly in architecture. It symbolizes the Tribes of Israel and friendship and their claimed affinity towards the Jewish people. Additionally, some independent LDS theologians such as LDS Daniel Rona have further suggested the possibility that the Star of David was actually modeled after the Urim and Thummim, but this is not official doctrine of the Church.

Zion Christian Church

A Star of David badge is worn by members of the Zion Christian Church, which has over three million members and is the largest African Initiated Church in southern Africa.

Usage by Arabs and Muslims

The symbol is known in Arabic as Predefinição:Lang, Najmat Dawuud (Star of David) or Predefinição:Lang Khatem Sulayman (Seal of Solomon), but the latter name may also refer to a pentagram.

Professor Gershom Sholem theorizesPredefinição:Fact that the "Star of David" originates in the writings of Aristotle, who used triangles in different positions to indicate the different basic elements. The superposed triangles thus represented combinations of those elements. From Aristotle's writings those symbols made their ways into early, pre-Muslim Arab literature.

The Arabs and Muslims were interested in arithmetics, and were also strongly drawn to biblical and Islamic tales. In fact, one of the most important persons in early Arab and Islamic literature was King Solomon (Arabic, Suliman or Sulayman). The Babylonian Talmud contains a legend about King Solomon being kidnapped by Ashmedai, the king of demons. He succeeded in kidnapping the king by stealing his "seal of Solomon", although according to the Talmud this seal was simply a metal coin with Hebrew letters meaning the name of God, inscribed on it. It is possible that the seal was altered in the Arab tales. The first appearance of the symbol in Jewish scriptures was in oriental Kabbalistic writings, so it is possible that it was an alteration of the pentagram under Arab influence.

In various places in the Qur'an, it is written that David and Solomon were prophets and kings and therefore they are revered figures by Muslims. The Islamic Turkish beyliks of the Karamanid and Candaroglu dynasties used the star on their flag. Even today, the star can be found in mosques and on other Arabic and Islamic artifacts.

Usage by Hinduism and Eastern Religions

Diagram showing the two mystic syllables Om and Hrim

Six pointed stars have also been found in cosmological diagrams in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. The reasons behind this symbol's common appearance in Indic religions and the West are lost in the mists of antiquity. One possibility is that they have a common origin. The other possibility is that artists and religious people from several cultures independently created the Star of David shape, which after all is a relatively simple and obvious geometric design.

Within Indic lore, the shape is generally understood to consist of two triangles--one pointed up and the other down--locked in harmonious embrace. The two components are called 'Om' and the 'Hrim' in Sanskrit, and symbolize man's position between earth and sky. The downward triangle symbolizes Shakti, the sacred embodiment of femininity, and the upward triangle symbolizes Shiva, or Agni Tattva, representing the focused aspects of masculinity. The mystical union of the two triangles represents Creation, occurring through the divine union of male and female. The two locked triangles are also known as 'Shanmukha' - the six-faced, representing the six faces of Shiva & Shakti's progeny Kartikeya. This symbol is also a part of several yantras and has deep significance in Hindu ritual worship and mythology.

In Buddhism, some old versions of the Bardo Thodol, also known as The Tibetan Book of the Dead, contain a hexagram with a Swastika inside. It was made up by the publishers for this particular publication. In Tibetan, it is called the 'origin of phenomenon' (chos-kyi 'byung-gnas). It is especially connected with Vajrayogini, and forms the center part of Her mandala. In reality, it is in three dimensions, not two, although it may be portrayed either way.



Theosophy

The Star of David is used in the seal and the emblem of the Theosophical Society (founded in 1875). Although it is more pronounced, it is used along with other religious symbols. These include the Swastika, the Ankh, the Aum, and the Ouroborus. The star of David is also known as the Seal of Solomon that was its orginal name until around 50 years ago.

Raelism

The pacifist International Raelian Movement (IRM) uses a hexagram. The root of this symbol, according to the founder of the IRM, Rael, can be attributed to its use by genetic engineers from extrasolar planets who are allegedly the same entities referred to as Elohim. According to Rael, these space travellers came to Earth and synthesized life from non-living matter in 7 laboratory bases which contained the symbol.

Some meanings which involve particular variations of this symbol are supported by the IRM, such as "well being" (where "swastika" means "well being" in Sanskrit) and "infinity in time" (as Hindus see the swastika as a symbol for "eternal" cycles). In Raelism, the upper and lower triangles represent "as above, so below", which refers to either the likeness between the creators' past and created's future or the repeating fractal hierarchical structure in the universe. "As above so below" is also well known in Wicca as the last statement of an invocation or ritual in order to bring the change of events from the upper world to the lower world (our world).

The IRM has long-term plans to build a temple complex or embassy that would, at around the time of a Technological Singularity, and before 2035, support the arrival of prophets of major and some minor religions after a spectacular descent from an interstellar journey. Rael (or the Elohim, as Rael would put it) requires that the embassy contain the "symbol of the Elohim". The symbol initially used by the Raelian movement was the source of considerable controversy linked to a proposal to build the Raelian embassy in Israel since it resembled a hexagram with the image of a Swastika embedded in its center.

Occultism

The hexagram, like the pentagram, was and is used in practices of the occult and is attributed to the 7 'old' planets outlined in astrology.

The six-pointed star is commonly used both as a talisman and for conjuring spirits in the practice of witchcraft. In the Book The History and Practice of Magic, Vol. 2, the six-pointed star is called the talisman of Saturn and it is also referred to as the Seal of Solomon<ref>""The History and Practice of Magic"" (Secaucus, NJ: University Books, published by arrangement with Lyle Stewart, 1979), Vol. II, p. 304</ref>. Details are given in this book on how to make these symbols and the materials to use.

Dr. John Dee, the court astrologist of Queen Elizabeth I, in his book Hieroglyphic Monad, includes the following quote: "'Mahatma Letters,' page 345: 'The double triangle viewed by the Jewish Kabbalists as Solomon's Seal is...the Sri--Antana of the Archaic Aryan Temple, the Mystery of Mysteries, a geometrical synthesis of the whole occult doctrine. The two interlaced triangles are the Buddham-Gums of Creation. They contain the 'squaring of the Circle,' the 'Philosophers' Stone,' the great problems of Life and Death--the mystery of Evil. The Chela who can explain this sign from every one of its aspects is virtually an Adept.'" (John Dee, Hieroglyphic Monad, Dr John Dee, WEISER BOOKS, Boston MA/York Beach, ME, page 76).

In the Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, we read: "The interlacing triangles or deltas symbolize the union of the two principles or forces, the active and passive, male and female, pervading the universe... The two triangles, one white and the other black, interlacing, typify the mingling of apparent opposites in nature, darkness and light, error and truth, ignorance and wisdom, evil and good, throughout human life." (Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Albert G. Mackey, 33rd Degree Freemason, and Charles T. McClenachan, 33rd Degree Freemason, p. 801, as quoted from secondary Source Codex Magica by Texe Marrs.)

Bradley, author of Secrets of the Freemasons, claims: "the hexagram is widely associated with the occult, and is considered the most powerful of Satan's symbols, containing '666.' Occultists also call it the 'trud' and us it in necromantic ceremonies to summon evil spirits." (Bradley, Secrets of the Freemasons, page 45.)


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