Stella Matutina

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Artigo Principal: Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

Merriam Websters Dictionary.jpg Este artigo encontra-se parcialmente em língua estrangeira.
Ajude e colabore com a tradução.

A Stella Matutina é uma Ordem iniciática dedicada a disseminação dos ensinamentos tradicionais da Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (Aurora Dourada) através do processo de iniciação. Entre 1900 e 1903, a Ordem externa da Stella Matutina era conhecida como Mystic Rose (Rosa Mística) ou Ordem de M.R. no Externo. Francis King, 1989, página 96.


Após uma revolta na primavera de 1903, a Ordem foi formada a partir do Templo Amoun, mudando o nome da Ordem Externa de Ordem Hermética da Aurora Dourada para Stella Matutina, por Robert Felkin, um doutor escocês, e outros membros de Londres. Dentre aqueles que ajudaram a formar a Stella Matutina estava John Brodie-Innes, apesar de que em pouco tempo fez as pazes com Samuel MacGregor Mathers e retornou à Ordem Hermética da Aurora Dourada, agora chamada Alpha et Omega.

A primeira postura de independência trouxe um comitê de doze pessoas para governar por um ano, mais tais desenvolvimentos forçaram-nos a perceber que isso estava longe de ser satisfatório. Com mesquinharias inconcebíveis e mais disputa, eles abandonaram todas as reformas e voltaram ao plano original de apontar três chefes para liderar governar.

Enquanto visitava a Nova Zelândia, Dr. Felkin e sua esposa estabeleceram um novo templo chamado Smaragdine Thalasses que foi intimamente associada com a New Zealand Province of the Societas Rosicruciana. Acreditavam que a estadia seria permanente, mas Sr. Meakin, que tomava o comando como chefe do Templo Amoun, faleceu no outono de 1912.

O Templo Amoun da Stella Matutina em Londres fechou suas portas em 1919. Isto foi devido a dois membros terem se tornado esquizofrênicos, um deles, sacerdote, mais tarde faleceu em um hospício.

Felkin set up Whare Ra (Maori for House of the Sun), a Stella Matutina temple, in his home at Havelock North, in the Hawke's Bay Region. During the next few years, Felkin establishes further temples: Hermes Lodge in Bristol, The Secret College in London, and Merlin Lodge, also in London.

In 1933, Israel Regardie joined the Hermes Temple in Bristol, and resigned out of the Amoun Temple in 1934, finding it in a state of demoralisation and decay. Many of the original Knowledge Lectures had been "removed or heavily amended, largely because they were beyond the capacity of the chiefs." These same chiefs claimed "extraordinarily exalted" grades, but showed ineptitude and ignorance of that which they taught. Regardie, giving an example, found that no one in the temple knew how to play Enochian chess, in fact the Order's chess set had never been used. He constructed his own boards and he challenged his superiors in the Order to play: all refused with excuses.

By 1939, Stella Matutina became largely dormant, although the Hermes Temple existed until 1970. Whare Ra continued until 1978.

Asserting Independence

From the very beginning, Felkin believed that the Order must in fact gain contact with the Secret Chiefs by the use of astral work and communications which were received through either trance or automatic writing<ref name="fking">King, 1989, page 97</ref>, as well as his wish that there should be unity among the Rosicrucian's. Great importance was given to these messages, which were coming in considerable numbers, some of which gave approval to make changes to the rituals.<ref name="fking"/> Felkin constructed new grades for the Stella Matutina, of which included Adeptus Major, Adeptus Exemptus, and Magister templi, all of which bear resemblance to the Ordo Templi Orientis grades of the fourth, fifth and sixth, before Aleister Crowley rewrote them.<ref name="francis"/>

At this point, according to Francis King, the chiefs of the Amoun Temple were addicted to mediumship and astral travel. Their interpretation of the Golden Dawn techniques of astral projection and travel appears to have been derived from Florence Farr's Sphere group.<ref name="frking"/>

There were two main astral entities contacted. The first group were Rosicrucian, in which at times the medium believed to be controlled by Christian Rosenkreuz himself. The second were called Arabs, said to be the teachers of the Rosicrucians.<ref name="frking"/> The orders given by these "Arabs" had a substantial effect on the policies. For example, instructions received on January 9th, 1915 was put into effect by the foundation of the Anglican spiritual healers organisation called the Guild of St. Raphael, as Francis King notes, "were almost without exception, members of the Stella Matutina".<ref>King, 1989, page 129</ref>

Felkin was not satisfied with astral meetings as he wished for physical contact with the Secret Chiefs. From 1901 onwards, he traveled extensively in hoping to meet authentic Rosicrucians.<ref>King, 1989, page 98</ref> In 1906, he believed he had found what he was looking for: a professor, his adopted daughter, and another gentleman, all who he believed were in fact Rosicrucians. The professors' adopted daughter had claimed to be the niece of Anna Sprengel (the Secret Chief who authorised the founding of the original Golden Dawn), and also claimed that her aunt was a member of the same organization as herself.<ref name="ref">King, 1989, page 99</ref>

The purported Rosicrucian group which Felkin has made contact with, was led by Rudolf Steiner, founder of the Anthroposophical Society, and at that time, still head of the German section of the Theosophical Society. King explains that it didn't appear as though this group was Theosophical, nor did it appear to be any later form of Anthroposophy. He speculates that, since Steiner was at that time also the Austrian Chief of the Ordo Templi Orientis, his first Rosicrucian grade beared resemblance to the first degree of the O.T.O (before Crowley).<ref name="ref"/>

Known members

See also


<references />


  • King, Francis (1989). Modern Ritual Magic: The Rise of Western Occultism. Avery Publishing Group. ISBN 1-85327-032-6
  • Llewelyn Encyclopedia: Golden Dawn Time Line
  • Regardie, Israel (1993). What you should know about the Golden Dawn (6th edition). New Falcon Publications. ISBN 1-56184-064-5